Coronaviruses are the family of viruses to which SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, belongs. They were discovered in the 1960s but their origin is still unknown.
Its different types cause different illnesses, from cold to severe respiratory distress syndrome (a severe form of pneumonia ). Most coronaviruses are not dangerous and can be treated effectively. In fact, most people contract a coronavirus in their life, usually during childhood.
It is a virus present mainly in animals, but also in humans. In recent years, three major epidemic outbreaks caused by new coronaviruses have been described: COVID-19 / SARS-CoV-2: At the end of December 2019, they reported the first cases of a new coronavirus in the city of Wuhan (China).
Reported cases already far exceed those of the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic. Its fatality rate is lower than other coronaviruses, but many more deaths are occurring(approaching a million, according to official figures) because infected people already number in the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the situation a pandemic.
There are infected people in most countries and health professionals insist on the need to follow preventive and control measures. In Spain and other countries, a state of alarm was decreed and, after a period of confinement, the so-called new normal was entered.
However, cases have increased again and there is already talk of a second wave of the pandemic. SARS-CoV: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, also known as SARS and SARS) started in November 2002 in China, affected over 8,000 people in 37 countries, and caused more mortality from SARS-CoV has been estimated at approximately 10%.MERS-CoV: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) was first detected in 2012 in Saudi Arabia.
As with other viruses that cause pneumonia, when transmitted in humans, infection occurs through the respiratory route, through respiratory droplets that people produce when they cough, sneeze or speak. Everything seems to show that the new coronavirus, which causes COVID-19, also has an animal origin.
In fact, we have linked the first cases to a live animal market in the city of Wuhan, China.
As for MERS, it is likely that camels are an important reservoir for this coronavirus and an animal source of infection in humans, as specified by the World Health Organization in its descriptive note on the disease.
However, the specific role of camels in the virus’s transmission and also the exact route (s) of transmission is unknown.
Originally, the MERS-CoV coronavirus is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted from animals to people. Based on the analysis of several of its genomes, the virus is believed to have originated in bats and transmitted to camels in the distant past.
I believe the SARS coronavirus to have originated in bats, later jumping to some other species of small mammals, such as the civet, and finally to humans.
Manifestations on the skin such as chilblains on the hands and feet (especially in children and adolescents) urticaria with and without itching or erythema multiforme.
This typology usually presents with cough, fever, and respiratory difficulties. Pneumonia is common, and in the case of MERS, gastrointestinal symptoms, especially diarrhea, may also occur.
As with the influenza virus, the most serious symptoms (and the highest mortality) are registered both in older people and in those individuals with immunosuppression or with chronic diseases such as diabetes, some types of cancer, or chronic lung disease.
In the most severe cases, they can cause respiratory failure. In the Covid-19 pandemic, it has been found that a very large percentage of infected people have mild symptoms or are asymptomatic.
Even the latter are transmitters of the virus and that is one of the reasons for the great expansion of the pandemic. To date, there is no vaccine to combat coronavirus infections, although there are several against SARS-CoV-2 in different phases of the investigation.
Therefore, knowing how they are transmitted is essential to establish prevention measures. They are transmitted through the respiratory tract through droplets produced by carriers when they cough, sneeze or speak.
There is increasing evidence that airborne transmission through aerosols can also occur. Secretions contain viral particles that can reach nearby people or settle on nearby objects and surfaces.
The first Indian Vaccine COVAXIN
India‘s first indigenous COVID-19 vaccine COVAXIN is developed in Bharat Biotech in collaboration with ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) NIV (National Institute of Virology) this vaccine is developed and manufactured in Bharat Biotech’s BSL-3 (Bio Safety Level 3) high containment facility.
The vaccine got good results after successful trials, the vaccine is going through the last phase, and after the third trial, the hope vaccine will be available soon.
Many other countries have also developed corona vaccine-like Russia but the success rate and quality of the vaccine, its side effects are not mentioned.