Sewing machine – designed directly for sewing products of varying complexity. Depending on the model, it has different sets of seams: from simple to decorative.
Sewing and embroidery machine – equipped with an embroidery unit, various embroidery programs. Due to the movement of the needle in different directions, it can embroider with satin stitch, cross stitch and other more complex ways. Most of them can be connected to a computer to set a personalized embroidery pattern. These cars are the most expensive, designed for the most creative people.
Overlocks are a type of sewing machine designed for trimming and processing the edges of fabric. In one operation, he can cut the fabric and overcast the cut immediately. As a rule, overlocks are independent devices, but it is unlikely to be able to replace a sewing machine.
The embroidery machine is used only for artistic embroidery and is not designed to perform other sewing work (hemming, sewing). Such a model like Juki sewing and quilting machines can embroider letters of the alphabet, a complex ornament. Basic embroidery techniques: satin stitch, cross stitch, cutwork, sequins. Embroidery machines are supplied with various presets, can be connected to a PC to download embroidery patterns.
Sewing (coverstitching) machine – used to sew a flat seam that covers the hem edge of a knitted garment. Such a seam is highly durable. It is used for sewing underwear, knitted clothes.
Coverlock is a multifunctional sewing machine that combines ordinary, overlock and cover sewing. The coverlock performs overcast and flat seams, chain and knit stitches.
Often, carpet locks are equipped with a touch screen, an additional table and other accessories. They are characterized by a high price and large dimensions, and also require special skills from the user.
A needle punching machine is a type of sewing machine that is used for felting (felting). Instead of a shuttle mechanism, such a device is equipped with a metal plate with holes, instead of a conventional needle – a block of several needles (5-7) with characteristic notches. The material is felted by means of these needles.
It is desirable that the machine has a compartment for storing useful little things, and for its reliable fixation on the table, non-slip rubberized legs.
Mechanical cars – have a foot or manual drive. Equipped with a small number of operations. Today, such models are not produced and it is almost impossible to find them on the domestic market.
Electromechanical machines – have an electric drive. Controlled by pressing the pedal. The operating speed depends on the force of pressing. Mechanical switches are used to control the functions.
Electronic typewriters – like electromechanical typewriters, are electrically powered, but the switches are electronic, not mechanical. There is an electronic control panel on the body of the machine. The number of functions and the complexity of operations depends on the model and memory size.
Computer machines – have the ability to connect to a computer, which allows you to load new patterns of stitching and embroidery, program any complex operations. The disadvantages of such machines are the complexity of management and high cost.
The swinging shuttle is inherent in inexpensive machines. Cost is the main advantage of this type of model. There are more disadvantages – vibration during work, which leads to uneven stitching, limited stitch length (no more than 5 mm) and low sewing speed.
Rotary horizontal shuttle – belongs to machines of the middle price category. Advantages – smooth operation without vibration, the thread is almost not tangled, does not require lubrication. The disadvantage is the inconvenience of adjusting the lower thread tension.
The rotary vertical shuttle is one of the most expensive models. They are characterized by the advantages of machines with a rotary horizontal shuttle, and also removed the main disadvantage of the latter – the adjustment of the lower thread tension passes without problems. The disadvantage is the high cost of the machines.
Number of sewing operations
This indicator directly affects the cost of the device. When choosing a sewing machine, you should be guided not by their number, but by the availability of specific operations that you need directly.
The cheapest and simplest machines perform 2-4 types of stitches. More expensive devices can have up to several hundred operations performed, including the ability to embroider.
Sewing a buttonhole
This is the sewing buttonhole sewing mode. It can be automatic, semi-automatic and manual.
The need for intervention from the employee and the cost of the device depend on the mode.
So, machines with an automatic mode are the most expensive, but such a machine can complete a loop in one go without assistance. Manual mode machines are the cheapest, but some skill is required to regulate such a device. So, choosing according to this indicator, you should focus on either convenience or cost.
The difference between automatic and semi-automatic is that the buttonhole is sewn either completely (automatic buttonhole) or half (semi-automatic buttonhole). In the second case, the fabric is turned by hand and machined on the other side of the buttonhole.
Depending on the model and cost, sewing machines can sew the following stitches:
- secret – used for inconspicuous hemming of the bottom of the product;
- elastic – for working with knitwear;
- elastic concealed – used for inconspicuous hemming of the bottom of a jersey;
- overlock – imitation of an overlock seam.
Number of threads for winding (overlocks)
This parameter, depending on the model, varies between 2-5. The more threads the overlock uses, the wider its functionality and the stronger the resulting seam. The most versatile are 5-thread overlocks, which can be divided into two categories:
- models that perform all seams except for flat (cover-up);
- models that create all seams: 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-thread, flat seam.
At the same time, as the number of threads increases, the cost of servicing the overlock and thread consumption increases.
Reverse – sews in reverse. This function secures the line.
Automatic securing of a stitch – the machine automatically secures the threads at the end or beginning of the stitching. Serves to strengthen the seams.
Sewing with a twin needle – allows you to get a parallel seam and greatly simplifies a number of sewing operations, for example, simulating a flat seam. Another option is two-color stitching. For this option to work correctly, a twin-needle compatible clipper is required. Some models provide triple needle sewing.
Sewing without a pedal – the machine is controlled by pressing a special button (one press – start the machine, another press – stop). Useful when creating loops, long decorative stitches, borders.
Foot pressure adjustment – allows you to change the pressure of the foot on the fabric based on its thickness. If the fabric is thin, increase the presser foot pressure, if the fabric is thick, decrease it.
Adjustment of thread tension – ensures the correct weaving of the lower and upper threads in the thickness of the material. This improves the quality of the seam. Computer models have an automatic thread tension device based on a specific stitch and fabric.
Puncture force adjustment – gives a constant puncture force regardless of the speed of the machine’s motor. In older electromechanical models, the puncture force is directly related to the engine speed. This function improves the sewing quality.
Speed limiter – provides a stable high-speed operating mode of the sewing machine, which does not depend on the pressure on the pedal. Used when quilting blankets, working with delicate details of the product, making decorative stitches.
Needle stop switch – Once sewing is complete, allows you to select the needle position (extreme high or extreme low).
Lower feed cut-off – stops the feeding of fabric for processing delicate fabrics, sewing on buttons, performing manual operations (embroidery).
Creation of your own stitches – makes it possible to design stitches according to the stitch length and width, which are specified by the user. The option also assumes the storage of these parameters in the electronic memory of the machine. This feature is present in computer models.
Sewing Alphabet Letters – Sews individual letters or lettering. Typically, a typewriter offers several types of fonts.
Also, the device may provide for the following functions: measuring the size of buttons (loops), automatic raising of the foot at the end of the operation.