Heart failure is one of the most dangerous complications patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure are on the brink of. When pressure, more than normal, is put on the heart to pump blood, the heart chambers weaken due to wear and tear. Visit the best cardiologist in Houston for apt treatment.
Usually, beta-blockers are prescribed for people with heart conditions. Firstly, we will look at what they are and then discuss how they work for heart failure patients.
Beta Blockers and Their Mechanism
Beta-blockers are the type of drugs that decrease stress on the heart by reducing speed and the force it applies to pump the blood. They work by affecting the beta receptors in the body. We have three categories of beta-blockers
- Cardio selective
- Third-generation beta-blockers
These are the first-ever type of beta-blockers formulated that target every type of beta-receptor present in the body. They are divided into three types depending and are present in different areas of the body.
- beta-1 receptors – heart and kidneys
- beta-2 receptors – lung, blood vessel, stomach, uterus, muscle, and liver
- beta-3 receptors – fat cells
This drug group has a high risk of side effects since it does not target a single one. Oxprenolol, propranolol, and sotalol are some examples of this category.
Cardio Selective Beta-Blocker
A better and modified version, these beta-blockers that target only beta 2 receptors and have zero effect on others. It has lesser side effects compared to non-selective. Atenolol and metoprolol are some of the drugs of this class.
These drugs have dual action that helps in patients who have heart failure. They are a form of hybrid drug that blocks the beta receptors. Additionally, dilates the blood vessels to lower the blood pressure as well. Carvedilol and nebivolol belong to this class.
Congestive Heart Failure
Also known as heart failure, it is a condition that affects the heart’s blood-pumping ability over time. A human heart has four chambers. Atria is the upper chamber with ventricles present in the lower region. In this condition, the heart fails to pump enough blood through the ventricles, so the volume tends to back up in various other organs. This disrupts the flow of blood throughout the body.
Signs and Symptoms to Look Out For
It starts with common signs like shortness of breath while performing an activity or even at rest—increased fatigue with fluid buildup in the ankles and legs. However, the symptoms may worsen if not caught in early stages. Irregular heartbeats, coughing, and wheezing with radiating chest pain are some of the grave signs that indicate immediate attention.
How Do Beta Blockers Work in Heart Failure Patients?
Beta-blockers effectively work for HF by slowing it down and protecting it from the hormone adrenaline and noradrenaline that initiate fight or flight response in the body. It relaxes the heart and protects it from beta1-adrenoceptor overstimulation, decreases pump rate.
Moreover, beta-blockers not only affect the heart but also cause vasodilation. Vasodilation is the relaxation of the blood vessels, which aids in better blood pumping with less force.
You must continue proper usage of beta-blockers and not stop abruptly after you start seeing betterment in symptoms. If you discontinue suddenly, there is a risk of going into a cardiac arrest.