The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck that is responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism. An imbalance in these hormones can result in a condition known as thyroid disease. There are two main types of thyroid disease: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is not producing enough hormones, while hyperthyroidism occurs when the gland is producing too many hormones.

Symptoms of Thyroid Disorders:


  • Increased heart rate and palpitations
  • Nervousness, anxiety, and irritability
  • Weight loss despite increased appetite
  • Increased sweating and heat intolerance
  • Insomnia or difficulty sleeping
  • Diarrhoea or frequent bowel movements
  • Fatigue and muscle weakness
  • Enlargement of the thyroid gland, also known as goitre is one of the major thyroid symptoms in male.
  • Changes in menstrual patterns in women


  • Fatigue and sluggishness
  • Weight gain despite decreased appetite
  • Cold intolerance and feeling cold all the time
  • Dry skin, hair loss, and brittle nails
  • Constipation and sluggish bowel movements
  • Depression and irritability
  • Heavy and irregular menstrual periods in women
  • Decreased libido in both men and women

Causes of Thyroid Disorders:


  • Graves’ disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the body produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess hormones.
  • Toxic adenomas: This is a condition where a single thyroid nodule produces excess thyroid hormones, leading to hyperthyroidism.
  • Subacute thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause temporary hyperthyroidism.


  • Hashimoto’s disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the body produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland, leading to its destruction.
  • Thyroidectomy: Surgery to remove the thyroid gland, either partially or entirely, can cause hypothyroidism.
  • Radioactive iodine treatment: This is a treatment for hyperthyroidism that uses radioactive iodine to destroy the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
  • Iodine deficiency: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and a deficiency can cause hypothyroidism.

If you suspect that you may have a thyroid problem, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. The following are some of the treatments available for thyroid disease:

  • Thyroid hormone replacement therapy: For hypothyroidism, the most common treatment is thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This involves taking a daily dose of the hormone levothyroxine, which replaces the thyroid hormones that your body is not producing enough of. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted based on your blood test results and symptoms until the right balance is reached. This therapy is generally very effective in treating hypothyroidism, and most people can lead a normal life with proper management.
  • Anti-thyroid medications: For hyperthyroidism, treatment typically involves the use of anti-thyroid medications, which slow down the production of thyroid hormones. These medications include methimazole and propylthiouracil. They may take several weeks or months to take effect, and regular monitoring of thyroid hormone levels is necessary to ensure that the right dose is being used.
  • Radioactive iodine: Radioactive iodine is another option for treating hyperthyroidism. This involves taking a small dose of radioactive iodine, which destroys the overactive thyroid tissue. The treatment is usually given in a single dose and is generally considered safe, with few side effects. However, it may take several months for the hyperthyroidism to be fully resolved, and regular monitoring of thyroid hormone levels is necessary.
  • Surgery: Surgery to remove the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) is another option for treating hyperthyroidism. This is usually only recommended for severe cases that are unresponsive to other treatments, or for people who have other medical conditions that make it difficult to take medications. The surgery is typically performed as a day procedure, and most people can go home the same day.

In addition to medical treatments, there are also lifestyle changes that can help manage thyroid disease. These include:

  • Eating a balanced diet: A well-balanced diet is important for maintaining good health, and this is especially true for people with thyroid disease. A diet that is rich in nutrients, including vitamin D, iodine, and selenium, can help support the thyroid gland and maintain healthy hormone levels. It is also important to avoid foods that can interfere with thyroid hormone absorption, such as soy products, cruciferous vegetables, and calcium-rich foods.
  • Staying physically active: Regular exercise can help boost energy levels, improve mood, and promote weight loss. For people with hypothyroidism, it is important to choose low-impact activities, such as walking or yoga, to avoid over-exertion and fatigue. 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day is recommended.
  • Managing stress: Stress can have a significant impact on the thyroid gland, so it is important to find ways to manage stress levels. This may include practices such as meditation, deep breathing, or spending time with loved ones. Consider taking up stress-management techniques like mindfulness, yoga, or tai chi.
  • Getting enough sleep: Sleep plays a critical role in overall health and well-being, and this is especially true for people with thyroid disease. Aim to get 7 to 9 hours of sleep per night, and establish a regular sleep routine to improve the quality of your sleep.
  • Avoiding environmental triggers: Certain environmental triggers, such as exposure to radiation, can worsen thyroid disease symptoms. It is important to identify and avoid these triggers to prevent flare-ups and maintain good health. For example, if you have a sensitivity to cold, make sure to dress warmly and avoid exposure to cold temperatures as much as possible.
  • Quitting smoking: Smoking can harm the thyroid gland, and can also worsen the symptoms of thyroid disease. For people who smoke, quitting can bring quite a significant benefit to their health. Your doctor can help you find the best way to quit smoking and manage the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
  • Limiting alcohol consumption: Alcohol can interfere with the absorption of thyroid hormone and can also affect liver function, which can be an issue for people with hypothyroidism. If you drink alcohol, it is important to do so in moderation and to avoid drinking to excess. 

In conclusion, thyroid disease can have a significant impact on overall health and well-being, but with proper management, it is possible to live a normal, healthy life. If you suspect that you may have a thyroid problem, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment and look for the above thyroid symptoms and cure. With the right combination of medical treatments and lifestyle changes, you can help manage your thyroid disease and enjoy a better quality of life.