A set of symptoms affecting memory, cognitive function, and daily activities is called dementia. Behavioral and psychosocial symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are widespread and may affect dementia patients and carers. These symptoms vary significantly and may alter as the condition advances. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia is treatable, and psychiatrists are best for it.

Common dementia behavioral and psychological symptoms:

  • Memory loss is a characteristic of dementia. Names, faces, and current occurrences may be forgotten. They may also have trouble remembering past facts.
  • Disorientation: Dementia may cause time, location, and identity confusion. They might become disoriented in familiar places and forget dates and seasons.
  • Restlessness, pacing, and irritability are prevalent among dementia patients. They may become angry and upset when faced with obstacles or regular adjustments.
  • People may be physically or verbally aggressive. This might be due to annoyance, fear, or being overwhelmed.
  • Hallucinations: Seeing persons or objects that are not there. Hallucinations cause bewilderment and misery.
  • Delusions: Irrational or untrue beliefs may arise. People with dementia may think someone is taking from them or that they are in danger.
  • Depression: Dementia may cause melancholy and despondency. People may lose interest in hobbies.
  • In dementia, anxiety increases. This may cause restlessness, pacing, and agitation.


  • Dementia may cause improper conduct like undressing in public or making indecent statements.
  • Sleep Disorders: Trouble falling asleep, numerous nighttime wakings, and daytime lethargy are typical.

These symptoms must be addressed by caretakers and doctors. This may include pharmaceutical and non-pharmacological therapies such as providing a supportive and organized environment, meaningful activities, and meeting physical and emotional needs. These symptoms may be difficult for dementia patients and their carers, so assistance is essential.

Symptoms of dementia

Dementia is a collection of symptoms caused by a decrease in memory or other mental abilities that impairs impairife.

The following are typical dementia symptoms:

Trouble remembering recent events is a frequent early dementia sign. Forgetting names or appointments is natural, but dementia causes forgetting crucial dates or events, constantly asking for the same information, or using memory aides.

Cognitive decline: Dementia impairs reasoning. This may cause trouble planning, judging, and solving difficulties. Dementia may also impair concentration and slow job completion.

Language issues may affect dementia patients. They may repeat themselves, have problems comprehending communication, or have trouble finding the correct words. Frustration and social seclusion might result.

Judgment: Dementia may impair judgment and decision-making. Individuals may make bad hygienic, financial, or safety decisions. They may dress inappropriately for the weather or offer strangers big quantities of money.

People with dementia may lose track of time, location, and even themselves. They may misremember dates, seasons, and locations.

Dementia may make it hard to do everyday duties like cooking or dressing. They may forget instructions or struggle with basic goods.


Dementia patients may store objects in strange locations and forget where they put them. They may blame others for taking their possessions.

Mood and personality changes might result from dementia. People may feel irritated, worried, or agitated. They may also be depressed or apathetic.

Dementia might cause a person to lose interest in hobbies. Social isolation may result from withdrawing from hobbies and social engagements.

These symptoms differ by dementia kind and person. Alzheimer’s disease is the most frequent form of dementia, although vascular, Lewy body, and frontotemporal dementia are also common. If you or someone you know has these symptoms, visit a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment. Early identification and intervention may help dementia patients and carers control symptoms and enhance quality of life.

The causes of dementia

Dementia causes memory loss, thinking problems, and difficulty with daily tasks.

Some dementia causes are main degenerative, while others are secondary. Some frequent causes:

The Alzheimer’s Disease:

Most dementia cases are caused by Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s disease causes brain protein deposits (amyloid plaques and tau tangles) to accumulate.

Vascular dementia:

Vascular dementia is caused by diminished brain blood flow owing to stroke or other blood vessel disorders. Memory and executive function might diminish due to brain injury.


Lewy bodies in the brain describe lewy body dementia. Like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, it causes cognitive changes, visual hallucinations, and movement abnormalities.

Frontotemporal dementia

FTDs include frontal and temporal lobe impairment. Early symptoms of this dementia include personality, behavior, and linguistic changes rather than memory loss.

Parkinson’s dementia:

Parkinson’s patients may acquire dementia. Parkinson’s disease dementia causes memory and executive function issues.


Huntington’s disease is a hereditary illness that degenerates brain nerve cells. Cognitive deterioration, mobility problems, and psychiatric disorders are symptoms.

Normal-pressure hydrocephalus:

NPH causes brain ventricles to fill with cerebrospinal fluid. It may cause problems walking, cognitive deterioration, and urine incontinence like dementia.

Traumatic Brain Injury:

Severe head injuries from accidents or falls may cause cognitive impairment and dementia, particularly later in life.

Cognitive impairment from HIV:

HIV-associated neurocognitive diseases may cause dementia and cognitive impairment.

It’s crucial to understand that dementia may have numerous causes and varies by person. In addition, age-related changes and other medical disorders might resemble dementia symptoms. A complete medical examination, including neurological and cognitive tests, is needed to diagnose and treat dementia.


Dementia therapy is interdisciplinary and tries to control symptoms, halt disease progression, and assist patients and carers. Most dementias have no cure, although some treatments may enhance quality of life. Dementia therapy depends on the etiology and individual variables. Treatment for dementia includes several common elements:


Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are popular Alzheimer’s drugs. They boost acetylcholine, a memory and learning neurotransmitter.

Alzheimer’s patients with moderate to severe illness are taken memantine. It controls glutamate, a learning and memory neurotransmitter.

Nonpharmacological Treatments:

Cognitive Stimulation: Puzzles, games, and memory therapy may boost mood and cognition.

Regular exercise offers cognitive advantages and may prevent dementia development.

Occupational therapy helps people preserve everyday independence and adjust to cognitive changes.

Speech and Language Therapy: Dementia patients with communication issues may benefit.





Psychosocial and behavioral interventions:

Behavior Management: Environmental changes, routine changes, and caregiver education may help control problematic behaviors including aggressiveness and agitation.

Counseling: Dementia patients and carers benefit from counseling and support groups. This may relieve disease-related emotional and psychological issues.

Caregiver Training: Training may help carers assist dementia patients.

Changes to the environment

Dementia patients may navigate better by eliminating clutter, enhancing illumination, and lowering noise.


Frequently asked questions by people are given below:

Does dementia have a cure?

There is no cure for most dementias. Symptom management, support, and quality of life are the goals of treatment. Certain drugs may temporarily relieve symptoms.

Difference between Alzheimer’s and dementia?

The leading cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s is a disease caused by brain protein deposits, whereas dementia is a combination of symptoms.

How can caretakers handle dementia?

To avoid burnout, caregivers may seek medical treatment, join support groups, learn about dementia, take care of themselves, and consider respite care.

Remember that dementia knowledge is continuously changing, so check with healthcare specialists for the latest and most specific guidance.