One of the oldest games in the world is the board game of black and white checkers, also called draughts. Two players compete against one another over a board of 64 bright and dark squares, much like a chessboard. The 24 playing pieces have a disc form and are colored differently (black and white). Each competitor has 12 pieces on the black and white checkers’ board when the game begins. The board is frequently presented backward for clarity even though the dark squares are always where the actual action takes place. Numbering the squares on the board serves as the foundation for the notation used to describe the game. White pieces always rest on squares 21 and the black pieces always occupy squares 1 to 12 to 32.

The object of the game is to move a piece diagonally forward to an adjacent empty square. Moving first is Black. An opponent’s piece must be caught and eliminated by leaping over it to the empty square if it is in such an adjacent unoccupied square with a vacant space beyond. A series of forward hops in a straight or zigzag manner must be completed during the same play if this square presents the same condition. The player has an option when there are several ways to leap. A piece must be crowned by the opponent, who lays another piece of the same colour on it, when it first enters the king row, the opponent’s rear row. The piece, which is now known as a king, also has the ability to move and jump backward; if it went to the final row with capture, it must try to continue capturing backward. When all of your opponent’s pieces are captured or prevented from moving, you win the game. A draw game is declared when neither side can be forced to win nor the pattern of play becomes predictable.

Early Egyptian pharaohs (about 1600 BC) were known to play games like checkers, and Homer and Plato both mention them in their writings. An early version of the game was converted to play on a 64-square chessboard around the year 12 AD. By the 16th century, the rule of compelling capture had been introduced, creating a game that is quite similar to contemporary black-and-white checkers today.

All expert play was initially unconstrained, or “do as you like,” and the opening moves were totally up to the player’s judgment. However, protracted series of drawn games between too-cautious tournament play professionals led to the development of strategies for imposing more diverse and risky styles of play. The initial move for each side in the two-move constraint is drawn at random from a pool of 47 possible permutations. With over 300 specified openings, the three-move, or American, limitation is a two-move restriction that extends to blacks’ second move.A less common option is the eleven-man ballot, in which one piece is drawn at random from each side before the game begins. The most widely used kind of casual play has persisted in the original game of go-as-you-please. The game comes in a variety of forms.