Based on severity, Brain Injury can adversely affect an individual’s life. Therefore, it must get diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. Read to know-how a traumatic brain injury diagnosed.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when an external, sudden, physical invasion damages the brain. TBI commonly causes death and disability in adults.
TBI is a broad term. It consists of a vast array of injuries to the brain. The damage can be:
- restricted to the brain’s one area, or
- in more than one part of the brain.
Brain Injury can be a mild concussion or a severe injury that can result in a coma or even death. The major causes of TBI in the United States occur from injuries related to motor vehicles (17%), strikes or blows to the head from or against an object (17%), such as sports injuries, and falls (35%).
Symptoms of TBI
Traumatic brain injury symptoms differ significantly depending on the severity of the head injury. Some signs are the following:
- Loss of consciousness
- Dilated pupils
- blurred vision or seeing the double, loss of eye movement, blindness, unable to tolerate bright light
- Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (blood-tinged or clear appear from the ears or nose)
- Dizziness and balance concerns
- Breathing problems
- Slow pulse
- Slow breathing rate
- Increase Blood Pressure
- Ringing in the ears
- Changes in hearing
- Cognitive difficulties
- Inappropriate emotional responses
- Slurred speech
- Inability to understand and articulate words
- Difficulty swallowing
- Body numbness or tingling
- Droopy eyelid or facial weakness
- Loss of bowel control or bladder control
A severe TBI is a medical emergency. Quick diagnosis and treatment can control potentially life-threatening complications.
Many individuals can experience Traumatic brain Injury symptoms years later. Some of them are:
- Loss of Concentration and Focus
- Losing memory or gaps in memory
- Changes in personality
- Sensory Disorders, such as light sensitivity
- Hearing Loss
- Trouble with sleep
- Anxiety and Depression
- Loss of taste and smell
Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury
An intense jolt or blows to the head or a head wound that pierces and disrupts normal brain function drives the TBI.
The human brain is shielded from jolts and bumps by the cerebrospinal liquid around it. The brain flows in this liquid inside the head.
A forceful impact to the head can push the brain against the inner wall of the skull and lead to bleeding and the tearing of fibers in the brain.
The leading reasons authorized Source of TBI in the U.S. in 2013, according to the CDC, were:
- Falls: Accountable for 47% of registered cases, notably in kids aged up to 14 years and grown-ups aged over 65 years
- Motor vehicle accidents: Accountable for 14% of the cases in the 15 to 19 years group.
- Getting struck by or colliding with an object: 15% of TBIs resulted from hitting either a moving or immobile object.
Other reasons include household violence and work-related and industrial casualties.
Diagnosis of TBI
The Glasgow Coma Scale
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is typically used to evaluate the probability and harshness of brain injury following a head injury.
Scores are provided to verbal reactions, physical reactions, and how effortlessly a person can unfurl their eyes.
- do not open
- open in response to pain
- open in response to voice
- open spontaneously
- makes no response
- makes incomprehensible sounds
- utters words or phrases
- speaks but is confused and disoriented
- communicates normally
Motor or physical response:
- makes no movement
- expands an arm in reply to pain
- flexes arm in response to pain
- moves away in answer to pain
- can identify where the pain is
- obeys orders to move a portion of the body
The scores are added concurrently, and brain damage will be categorized as follows:
- Coma, (score < 8)
- Moderate, (score is from 9 to 12)
- Minor, (score is 13 or more)
People scoring 13 to 15 on the scale when they enter the hospital get expected to have a satisfactory result.
MRI or CT imaging scans of the brain will help specify authorized Sources, any brain wound or damage, and where.
Angiography may get acknowledged to detect any blood vessel issues, for example, after penetrating head trauma.
Electroencephalography (EEG) estimates the electrical exercise within the brain. The results can indicate if a patient is retaining non-convulsive seizures.
Intracranial pressure monitoring allows the physician to calculate the pressure inside the head. It can show any swelling of brain tissue.
Neurocognitive tests can help evaluate any memory loss or capacity to process ideas.
Patients or guardians should confirm that health providers know of any drugs the person takes, particularly blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), as these can raise the chance of difficulties.
Traumatic brain injury usually results from a violent impact or shock to the head or body. An object that moves through brain tissue, such as a bullet or broken part of the skull, also can induce TBI.
TBI might be mild or moderate and may impact your brain cells temporarily. More grave TBI can result in bruising. It also involves torn tissues, bleeding, and other physical damage to the brain. These damages can result in long-term difficulties or death.