As a result of socialization, a person acquires knowledge, experience and skills that promote integration into society, understanding of applicable laws, rules and moral standards. Although socialization continues throughout life, nevertheless, it is more important in the first stage of life, during childhood, because, due to the biological and genetic peculiarities, the impressions of the child in the first years shape his personality, character, preferences and behavior.
Cartoons and children
Having only spent time in a kindergarten / school or at home, the child’s thirst for knowledge is not satisfied. In addition, children spend more time in front of the television than in one of the aforementioned structures. Research by University of Michigan professors Kayla Broys and Brad Bushman found that:
Children 2-5 years old watch 32 hours of cartoon per week,
Those aged 6 to 11 spend 28 hours,
71% of children aged 8-18 have a separate TV,
53% of children aged 7 to 12 watch television without parental supervision.
The professor from the same university, Sharmin, claims in his research that children are more drawn to cartoons than to learning traditional academic tools, the reason for which lies in interesting cartoon scenarios, audiovisual effects and color solutions. Scientists have proven that children not only learn from cartoons, but thanks to their cognitive abilities, memorize and imitate the behavior of the characters of the latter.
Younger children do not yet have enough skills to assess the actions of the main heroes of the cartoon which, in turn, become enigmatic realities for them. The role of parents is important here as they can prevent negative consequences by explaining to children the effects of a particular action.
As a result of a survey of 47 children and their parents in one of the Russian schools, 56% of respondents prefer foreign cartoons, 14 prefer Russian cartoons and 30% like both. 33% of parents limit children’s choice of cartoons, 67% do not. 41% favorite heroes of children were Ninja Turtles, Transformers, Winx fairies, 39% preferred Little Mermaid, 12% Spong-Bob, 6% Luntik, 2% preferred Soviet cartoon heroes.
The Influence of cartoons on children’s development
Scientists share the opinion that cartoons leave a positive or negative impact on children.
Positive influence. Among the positive effects, scientists distinguish the supporting role of the cartoon in the education of children, additional information about the world, and the organization of interesting entertainment. Cartoons teach children the rules of behavior in society (respect for adults, teamwork, etc.), they enrich vocabulary (watching a cartoon in a foreign language, a child can also master this language) , help to discover the world / Dora-traveler, Dexter’s Laboratory /. Most of the cartoon characters have a healthy lifestyle, have many positive characteristics that children like to emulate.
Negative influence. Further research has been conducted to clarify the negative effects of cartoons on children’s behavior. Scientists mainly highlight health problems, severe behavior and symptoms of sexuality in children. In 1997, 653 children were hospitalized in Japan because of epileptic seizures, the reason for which was, according to the following studies, the blue and red explosion of the 38th episode of “Pokémon” that all the children had watched this that day. This episode was later banned by the Japanese government and was never returned.
Experts from the American Academy of Pediatrics have found that children who watch cruel cartoons become aggressive, disobedient, brutal and angry. Cartoons help children to develop their imaginations, on the other hand, its negative impact may be that children may stay too long in this fantasy world.
Huysman, the professor at the University of Michigan, notes that the presence of the violent scenes in cartoons creates difficulties for children to understand the action and its consequences: for example, when a heavy object falls on the head of the hero, the scene makes people laugh and the hero is not hurt and when the child sees him, he gradually loses the link between action and result (eg Tom and Jerry, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles).
Walt Disney and feminism
According to social psychology, the human race, in the processes of socialization, is shaped, from an early age, by the perceptions of the role of women and men. Scientists call this phenomenon distinctive socialization.
Disney was often accused of spreading anti-feminist ideas, the main target of criticism was Disney’s most famous cartoon series, “Disney Princesses”. During the years 1939-1959, the Disney princesses were not distinguished by their individualism, except that all were pretty, had a beautiful voice and were good housekeepers. By this time, white women had obtained their right to vote, but their role in society had not changed much. The heroines of “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1937), “The Cinderella” (1950) and “Sleeping Princess” (1959) are passive princesses who are not involved in any active action and are ultimately saved by the princes. .
A new Disney season begins with “The Little Mermaid” (1989) which lasted from 1989 to 1998. This period can be conditionally called “the girls in difficulty” (“The Little Mermaid” (1989), “Beauty and the beast ”(1991),“ Aladdin ”(1992),“ Pocahontas ”(1995) and“ Mulan ”(1998)). The individuality of the heroines of these cartoons from this period is well emphasized, they have their own dreams and aspirations, but always fall into trouble due to their own adventure.
Belle, the heroine of the cartoon “Beauty and the Beast” (1991), is not a princess, her love affair with the monster concerns inner beauty. “Mulan” (1998) is the most feminist cartoon of this era: the heroine goes to the Chinese army to save her father’s honor, but she has to pretend to be a man.
Disney’s pro-feminist period began with the cartoon “Princess and the Frog” in 2009. Certainly there are romantic relationships in the cartoons “Princess and the Frog” and “Rapunzel” (2010), but the heroines have a brilliant personality and they save men time and time again. The cartoons “Rebel” (2012), “Frozen” (2013) and “Moana” (2016) focus on the love of family, relationships with father, mother, siblings of the girl.