Introduction to Ram Air Turbines:

Ram air turbines (RATs) are an important component of aircraft and play a crucial role during emergencies. They are small, lightweight turbines that are designed to provide power in case of a loss of primary or auxiliary power on an aircraft. RATs use the force of the flowing air to generate mechanical energy, which is then converted into electrical energy for essential functions such as flight controls, communication systems, and lighting.

The principle behind the functioning of a ram air turbine is simple – it takes advantage of the high-speed airflow created by the forward motion of an aircraft. As the name suggests, it uses “ram” pressure from this airflow to rotate its blades and generate electricity. This concept was first introduced in 1940 during World War II when engineers were looking for ways to keep planes flying even after their engines failed.

During normal operations, RATs remain inactive as they only come into play when there is no other source of power available on board. In emergencies like engine failure or damage to other generators on the plane, pilots can manually deploy RATs using a lever inside the cockpit or through an automatic system triggered by sensors detecting loss in power supply.

Furthermore, RATs are designed to work efficiently at high altitudes where air density is low and conventional power sources like engines or auxiliary power units may not function effectively. They are also equipped with a braking system that helps slow down their rotation once power is restored on board, preventing any damage to the generator unit.

Ram air turbines are an essential component of modern aircraft, providing a reliable backup source of power during emergencies. Their simple yet effective design has proven to be crucial in saving countless lives by keeping planes flying even under challenging circumstances.

The Importance of Ram Air Turbines in Aviation;

Ram Air Turbines (RATs) are an essential component of modern aviation, providing a crucial source of emergency power in the event of an engine failure or loss of electrical power. These small yet powerful devices have played a significant role in ensuring the safety and success of countless flights over the years.

One of the main functions of a Ram Air Turbine is to generate electricity for critical systems on board an aircraft. In most commercial airliners, this includes powering the hydraulic systems that control flight surfaces such as flaps and landing gear, as well as providing backup power for essential avionics equipment. This is especially important during takeoff and landing when the aircraft relies heavily on its hydraulic systems to manoeuvre safely.

In some cases, such as with military aircraft or smaller private planes, RATs may also be used to provide additional thrust in case of engine failure. By using the kinetic energy from air flowing through its blades at high speeds, a Ram Air Turbine can produce enough force to keep an aircraft flying until it reaches a safe altitude or finds a suitable place to land.

But what makes Ram Air Turbines truly remarkable is their ability to function without any external source of power. Unlike traditional generators which require fuel or battery-powered backups that can run out, RATs utilise only the force generated by air moving through them. This makes them incredibly reliable and ensures they will continue operating even if all other sources of power fail.

Furthermore, RAMs are designed to deploy automatically in emergencies when normal sources of power are lost. This quick response time means that critical systems can be powered up instantly without any delay, increasing the chances of successful recovery from potentially dangerous situations.

How Do Ram Air Turbines Work?

Ram Air Turbines (RATs) are small, lightweight devices that play a crucial role in aircraft safety and functionality. They provide an auxiliary source of power in case of emergencies when the primary sources of power fail.

As the name suggests, RATs harness the power of ram air to generate energy. Ram air is simply the high-speed airflow that is created when an aircraft moves through the atmosphere. This can be caused by either forward motion or wind passing over the plane’s surfaces. RATs consist of three main components: a turbine, a generator, and a control mechanism. The turbine is essentially a small propeller that is driven by the ram air entering through an opening on the side of the aircraft. This propeller spins at high speeds due to the force of the incoming airflow.

The spinning turbine then powers a generator which produces electricity. This electricity can be used to operate essential systems such as communication equipment, navigation instruments, and flight controls. The control mechanism comes into play when there is an emergency situation and RAT deployment is required. Pilots can manually activate it by pulling a lever or switch in the cockpit, which opens up doors for ram air to enter and start driving the turbine.

In most cases, RATs are deployed during critical situations such as engine failure or loss of electrical power. These scenarios require immediate action from pilots to ensure safe operation of the aircraft.

Different Types of Ram Air Turbines;

Ram Air Turbines (RATs) are crucial emergency power sources used in various aircraft, especially during critical situations such as engine failure or loss of electrical power. These compact and lightweight devices are designed to generate electricity by harnessing the kinetic energy of the incoming airflow. However, not all RATs are created equal. In this section, we will delve into the different types of Ram Air Turbines and their unique features.

  • This is the most common type of RAT found in commercial aircraft. It consists of a single set of straight blades attached to a central hub that rotates when air flows through it. The rotation generates mechanical energy that is then converted into electrical energy by an alternator or generator connected to the hub. Straight-blade RATs have a simple design and are relatively easy to maintain.
  • As the name suggests, dual-stage RATs have two sets of blades instead of one, making them more efficient than straight-blade RATs. The first set of blades rotates at high speeds and generates mechanical energy, which is then transferred to a second set of smaller blades that rotate at even higher speeds to produce more electricity.
  • This type of RAM utilises an additional device called an ejector or diffuser, which increases its efficiency significantly. The diffuser enhances the flow speed and pressure before directing it towards the turbine blades, resulting in higher output power compared to other types.
  •  Unlike traditional fixed-pitch turbines, variable-pitch RATs have adjustable blade angles that allow them to operate efficiently even at varying airspeeds and altitudes. This makes them ideal for use in military aircraft where speeds can vary significantly during flight missions.

Understanding the different types of RAM Air Turbines will help you appreciate their versatility and importance in emergencies. Each type has its unique features and capabilities, but all serve the same purpose – to provide essential power when needed most.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using a Ram Air Turbine;

A ram air turbine (RAT) is a small, portable wind turbine that is used to generate electricity in emergencies. It functions by harnessing the power of the wind as an aircraft moves through it, providing an alternative source of power in case the primary sources fail. While RATs have proven to be effective in providing backup power, there are also several advantages and disadvantages associated with their use.




  • One of the main advantages of using a RAM air turbine is its reliability as a backup power source. In case of engine failure or other emergencies that lead to loss of power, the RAT can be deployed quickly to provide essential electrical power for critical systems such as flight controls and communication equipment.
  • Compared to other auxiliary power units or generators, RATs are relatively inexpensive and require minimal maintenance, making them a cost-effective option for emergency power supply.
  • Since RATs are compact and lightweight, they can be easily installed on any aircraft without significant modifications. This makes them an ideal solution for smaller aircraft where space and weight restrictions may limit the use of other backup systems.
  • The deployment of a RAM air turbine during emergencies can significantly improve safety by ensuring that crucial systems remain operational even when primary sources fail. This gives pilots more time to troubleshoot issues and make necessary landings safely.




  • The main disadvantage of using a RAM air turbine is its limited power output compared to traditional generators or auxiliary units. While it can provide enough energy for critical systems, it may not be sufficient for non-essential equipment, such as cabin lights or air conditioning.
  • As RATs rely on wind energy, their effectiveness is highly dependent on the aircraft’s speed and direction relative to the wind. This means that in some flight conditions, they may not be able to provide enough power to meet the aircraft’s needs.
  • RATs are relatively fragile and can sustain damage during deployment, especially if there are strong crosswinds or turbulence. This can result in a loss of backup power when it is most needed.
  •  In cases where an aircraft experiences prolonged power loss, a RAM air turbine may not be able to sustain backup power for an extended period due to its limited fuel supply.

While there are both advantages and disadvantages associated with using a ram air turbine, it remains an essential piece of emergency equipment for any aircraft. Its reliability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness make it a valuable asset in case of emergencies where every second counts. However, it is crucial to consider

Maintenance and Safety Considerations for Ram Air Turbines;

Maintenance and safety considerations for ram air turbines are crucial in ensuring the proper functioning of these vital emergency power sources. Ram air turbines (RATs) are small but powerful devices that provide essential backup power to aircraft in case of engine failure or other emergencies. They work by harnessing the kinetic energy from the airflow during a rapid descent, converting it into mechanical energy to drive a generator that produces electricity.

To ensure optimal performance and reliability, regular maintenance is critical for ram air turbines. The following are some key maintenance considerations for RATs:

Regular inspections should be conducted to check for any signs of wear and tear on the turbine blades, bearings, and other critical components. These inspections can help identify any potential issues before they become major problems. Proper lubrication of all moving parts is essential to keep the turbine running smoothly. This includes greasing bearings and applying oil where necessary.

The air filter in a RAT should be regularly replaced to prevent debris from entering the system and causing damage.It is important to regularly test the electrical connections and wiring of the RAT to ensure they are secure and functioning correctly.


Apart from regular maintenance, safety considerations must also be taken into account when working with ram air turbines:

When installing or replacing a RAT, it is imperative that proper procedures are followed as specified by the manufacturer or certified technician. Incorrect installation can lead to malfunctioning or failure during an emergency situation.Before conducting any maintenance checks on a RAT, ensure that all electrical connections have been disconnected and properly grounded.

Anyone working on a RAM must wear appropriate PPE such as gloves, safety glasses, and hearing protection to prevent injury.All personnel who are responsible for the maintenance of RATs should be adequately trained on proper procedures and safety precautions. This includes knowledge of emergency shutdown procedures in case of any unforeseen events.

Regular maintenance and adherence to safety protocols are essential for ram air turbines to function at their best during critical situations. Proper care and attention can ensure that these backup power sources are always ready when needed most.


            The ram air turbine (RAT) is a crucial component in aircraft design that provides a reliable and efficient source of emergency power. It serves as a backup system for generating electricity and hydraulic power in case of engine failure or other critical situations. Its simple yet effective design allows it to be deployed quickly and easily, ensuring the safety of both the aircraft and its passengers.

The primary function of the RAT is to convert wind energy into mechanical energy to drive a generator or hydraulic pump. This process is achieved by utilising the airflow generated during flight, which is then directed towards the RAT blades through an intake scoop. As long as there is sufficient airspeed, the RAT will continue to generate power, making it an essential lifeline when all other systems fail.

Moreover, the installation of a RAT does not add significant weight or drag to an aircraft, making it an economical choice for airlines. This also means that it does not have any adverse effects on fuel consumption or performance during regular flights.

In addition to providing backup power, modern-day RATs also serve as windmilling devices that help reduce excess rotational speed in high altitude conditions. This feature prevents overspeeding of turbines, which can cause damage and potentially lead to engine failure.