BDO is the diol intermediate used to produce a wide range of industrial chemicals such as polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polyurethanes and polyesters with biodegradability properties. It is also used as a base in condensation reactions to give esters, carbamates and simple halides.

Despite its versatility, the chemical industry has not yet managed to use renewable raw materials as a basis for BDO production. This will become a significant challenge in the future.

How to Oxy-Acetylene Weld — careerweld



Acetylene, also known as ethyne or HCCH, is a colorless, odorless gas with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon, a chemical compound that contains carbon atoms. It is a common building block and is used to make chemicals and fuels, such as 1,4-butanediol.

It has the lowest boiling point of all gases and is soluble in water. It is miscible with acetone, benzene, and chloroform. It is also slightly soluble in ethanol.

In chemistry, acetylene is a key part of the manufacturing process for plastics, glass, and other raw materials. It is also an important chemical feedstock in the production of nitrile rubbers and synthetic polyurethanes.

Pure acetylene is colourless and has a pleasant odor. It is prepared from calcium carbide. It usually contains traces of phosphine, which gives it the ‘garlicy’ odour associated with it.

It is a highly reactive chemical that can be easily ignited by heat, friction, or shock. It can react with metals to form explosive acetylides. It can be made by partial combustion of methane and by cracking of hydrocarbons.

The name acetylene comes from the French scientist Marcellin Berthelot, who first discovered it in 1860. He was able to produce it both by passing organic compounds through a red-hot tube and by electro-chemical means.

Today, acetylene is an essential chemical ingredient in the production of nitrile rubbers, synthetic rubber neoprene, water-based paints, vinyl fabric and floor coverings, dry-cleaning solvents, and aerosol insecticide sprays. It is also an important raw material in the cutting, brazing, and flame scarfing processes and in metallurgical heating and hardening.

However, acetylene can also be an explosive and poses a risk to workers. Its lower and upper explosive limits in air are 2.5% and 93%, respectively. Inflammable mixtures of acetylene with oxygen are a hazard in certain industries, such as the gasification of coal.

The hazard of acetylene can be minimized by maintaining concentrations of acetylene below 3000 ppm. It can also be reduced by keeping the cylinders in a cool, dry place.


Propylene is a prochiral alkene with the chemical formula C3H6. It is a widely used synthetic organic compound and zhongtai chemical, and it is found in numerous industrial products. It is used as a solvent, a fuel, an additive, a lubricant and a heat-transfer fluid. It can also be found in cosmetics and pharmaceutical intermediates.

It is produced commercially by thermal or catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons. During cracking, the molecules of the original hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, simpler hydrocarbons called alkenes. The processes used to produce propylene include steam cracking and catalytic cracking.

These processes can be performed with a variety of catalysts, depending on the specific reaction conditions. Some of these catalysts include sodium (Na), tin, copper and zinc oxide. Others include rhenium, palladium and iron oxide.

However, the most commonly used catalysts for synthesis of propylene are silver and aluminum salts, which have a high rate of conversion. The resulting amides are largely used in the production of polymers. These complexes can be reacted with carbon monoxide or hydroxyl radicals, which can then form a chain of alkenes that result in the final product, propylene.

Another common reagent in the synthesis of propylene is a nitrogen-containing oxidant, which has the effect of accelerating the process. The reactivity of this reagent depends on the type of oxidant used and the temperature at which the reaction takes place.

This reactivity can lead to explosions. Propylene explodes on contact with nitrogen or sulfur dioxide, especially in an oxidizing atmosphere. It can also be explosive on contact with trifluoromethyl hypofluorite, although this reactivity has not been observed in laboratory experiments.

In addition, propylene is flammable in its liquid state and may burst into flames when exposed to heat. It is considered a hazardous material and must be handled with care in the workplace.

The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has issued exposure limits for workers at manufacturing, processing and other facilities that use propylene. The maximum allowable concentration of propylene for a worker is 500 ppm. Peak exposure levels of 3 times the maximum allowable concentration are not to be exceeded for any 15-minute period, or on more than 4 occasions spaced 1 hour apart during the workday.

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Butane is one of the gaseous hydrocarbons (compounds of carbon and hydrogen) that make up a group known as alkanes. Its chemical formula is C4H10.

Butane exists in natural gas in very small amounts, primarily as the product of the separation process from methane. As a result, it is commonly used as a chemical intermediary and a fuel.

It is also produced during the vaporization of petroleum, where it occurs in very small amounts. It is also a by-product of the refining of petroleum to produce gasoline, and it is sometimes used as a feedstock for ethylene and butadiene production.

In its natural form, butane is a colorless, odorless gas that easily vaporizes at room temperature. It is a flammable compound and should be stored away from flame or heat sources.

When exposed to oxygen, butane burns to form carbon dioxide and water vapor; if oxygen is not available, it may also produce carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide.

It is often used to produce butadiene, a compound that is used in the manufacture of acetic acid, cyclobutyl phosphate, methyl tertiary butyl ethers, and other organic chemicals. It is used as a lubricant and fuel, and it is a component of some synthetic rubbers.

Butane is a simple alkane consisting of four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. It has a very strong bonding tendency, with a low electronegativity in its C – C bond and little in its C – H bonds. It is also a very polar compound, with the ability to form polymer chains.

This makes butane an ideal liquifying agent, which is why it is so widely used as a coolant in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. It can also be used as a solvent for the extraction of fragrance oils from plants, and in preparing fatty acids for bio-synthesis.

It is also a component of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) that are commercially sold as gas or liquefied petroleum. Butane is also used as a fuel for power generation.

Bio-succinic acid

Bio-succinic acid is a chemical used in various industries as a raw material for manufacturing adhesives, solvents, sealants, resins, elastomers, coatings, plastics and lubricants. It also helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is considered as an eco-friendly substitute to many petrochemicals which are harmful for the environment.

Succinic acid is a four-carbon carboxylic acid that is produced by all living organisms through fermentation of sugars. It has long been regarded as an attractive replacement for maleic anhydride, which is an expensive, toxic and inefficient chemical.

However, it is difficult to produce succinic acid from renewable resources because of the large volume of water in the bio-fermentative feedstocks. DNP Green Technology, a joint venture between DNP and Agro-industrie Recherches et Developpements (ARD), has developed an innovative technology to produce succinic acid from glucose through bacterial fermentation in an industrial scale.

The xinjiang zhongtai company claims its process produces 60 percent less energy than succinic acid made from fossil fuels and costs 40 percent less. The bio-based technology can be used to transform sucrose into a range of chemicals and polymers, including renewable 1,4 butanediol and succinate esters for use as nontoxic solvents and substitutes for phthalate-based plasticizers in PVC and other polymers.

It has become increasingly important to replace the synthetic chemicals in various industries with organic products which are free from hazardous substances and also help in minimizing the impact on the environment. This is one of the main reasons behind the increasing demand for bio-succinic acid.

A number of companies are developing bio-succinic acid based on different technologies. Among them are DNP Green Technology and Roquette Fr?res, which have built a pilot plant in France and Myriant in Louisiana.

Despite the fact that it is difficult to produce bio-succinic acid from renewable resources, it is growing in popularity as an environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemicals. The market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.6% from 2020 to 2025.

The Asia-Pacific region holds the largest share in the global market due to its large demand for dyes and inks which are widely used in the textile industry. The rising disposable income and changing lifestyles are driving the market for bio-succinic acid in this region. The market is also anticipated to grow in the future as a result of the increasing concern over the harmful chemicals that are used in the cosmetics and personal care industries.