Eating disorders are complex mental health conditions that can have devastating effects on both physical and emotional well-being. In this comprehensive overview, we will delve into various types of eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, binge-eating disorder, and less common variations. We will also explore their symptoms, potential causes, and the importance of seeking professional help. Hannah Myall, a psychologist with expertise in eating disorders, will provide insights into these conditions.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image. Individuals with anorexia often engage in restrictive eating, which leads to severe weight loss and malnutrition. Symptoms include obsessive calorie counting, excessive exercise, and denial of the seriousness of their condition. Anorexia can have life-threatening consequences, including heart problems, organ failure, and osteoporosis.

Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors such as vomiting, excessive exercise, or laxative use. Individuals with bulimia often maintain a relatively normal weight, making it harder to detect. This condition can lead to electrolyte imbalances, dental issues, and gastrointestinal problems. The cycle of binging and purging can have a severe impact on mental health, leading to shame, guilt, and anxiety.

Binge-Eating Disorder

The binge-eating disorder shares similarities with bulimia but lacks compensatory purging behaviors. People with this disorder frequently consume large quantities of food in a short period, often feeling a loss of control during these episodes. Binge eating can lead to obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, in addition to causing emotional distress and a negative impact on self-esteem.

Other Less Common Eating Disorders

In addition to the well-known eating disorders mentioned above, there are several less common variations that also require attention and understanding:

  1. Orthorexia Nervosa: This condition involves an obsession with eating only “healthy” or “pure” foods, often leading to extreme dietary restrictions and social isolation.
  2. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): ARFID is characterized by limited food choices due to sensory sensitivities, fear of choking, or other factors unrelated to weight concerns. It can lead to nutritional deficiencies and impaired growth in children.
  3. Pica: Individuals with pica consume non-nutritive, non-food substances, such as clay, chalk, or paper. This behavior can result in serious health problems, including poisoning and intestinal blockages.
  4. Rumination Disorder: People with rumination disorder regurgitate and re-chew their food, often without conscious effort. This condition can lead to weight loss and nutrient deficiencies.

Potential Causes

The exact causes of eating disorders are multifaceted and can vary from person to person. They typically involve a combination of genetic, environmental, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Hannah Myall, a psychologist specializing in eating disorders, emphasizes that body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, low self-esteem, and societal pressures to attain unrealistic beauty standards can contribute to the development of these conditions. Traumatic experiences, such as bullying or childhood abuse, can also play a role.

Seeking Professional Help

Hannah Myall psychologist stresses the importance of seeking professional help for individuals struggling with eating disorders. These conditions can be extremely challenging to overcome without appropriate treatment. Therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical-behavior therapy (DBT), and family-based treatment (FBT) have shown effectiveness in treating eating disorders.

Nutritional counseling and medical monitoring are also crucial components of recovery. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to address immediate health concerns.

Support from friends and family is invaluable, but it’s essential to remember that eating disorders are complex mental health disorders that require specialized care. Avoid blaming or shaming individuals with eating disorders, as this can exacerbate their condition. Instead, encourage them to seek professional help and offer your support throughout their journey to recovery.


Understanding the different types of eating disorders, their symptoms, and potential causes is vital in promoting awareness and empathy. These conditions can have devastating consequences on both physical and mental health, and early intervention is essential. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, don’t hesitate to reach out to a mental health professional like Hannah Myall, who can provide the guidance and support needed to embark on the path to recovery. Remember that recovery is possible, and seeking help is the first step toward a healthier, happier future.