The Iliad, Homer’s epic masterpiece, is one of the fundamental pillars of Western literature. This grandiose work narrates the crucial events of the Trojan War, a mythical clash that has shaped the collective imagination for centuries. The plot is steeped in heroism, revenge and the intertwined destinies of gods and men.

The Plot: Achilles’ Wrath and the Devastating Consequences

The Iliad opens with the fatal wrath of Achilles , the bravest Greek hero, triggered by an offense suffered by King Agamemnon. This personal conflict between the two champions is intertwined with the ongoing war between the Greeks (Achaeans) and the Trojans, casting a dark shadow over the fate of the battle.

Achilles, enraged, withdraws from the fight, refusing to fight alongside the Achaeans. This decision has devastating consequences, as the Trojans, led by the brave Hector, begin to prevail on the battlefield. The Achaeans suffer numerous losses, and the situation becomes increasingly desperate.

Meanwhile, the Olympian gods observe and influence earthly events, siding with different factions and further fueling the conflict. Zeus, the king of the gods, plays a crucial role in determining the course of the war, while Hera and Athena support the Achaean cause, and Aphrodite and Ares side with the Trojans.

In the end, after the death of his friend Patroclus at the hands of Hector, Achilles decides to return to battle with a vengeful fury. This event marks a crucial turning point in the war, as Achilles, with his superhuman strength and martial skill, begins to decimate the Trojan ranks.

The Fall of Hector and the Sorrow of Priam

The climactic battle of the Iliad sees Achilles face Hector, the bravest of the Trojans and the son of King Priam. This epic clash ends with the death of Hector at the hands of Achilles, an event that throws Troy into deep mourning.

Priam, the king of Troy, makes an extraordinary gesture when, at the risk of his own life, he goes into the enemy camp to beg Achilles to return Hector’s body to him for a proper burial. This moment of human compassion, amidst the atrocities of war, represents one of the climaxes of the work.

Main characters:

  1. Achilles: The protagonist of the Iliad, a Greek warrior of extraordinary strength and martial skill. His anger towards Agamemnon and his subsequent revenge against the Trojans are the fulcrum of the entire epic.


  1. Hector: The brave Trojan hero, son of King Priam and the bravest of the Trojan warriors. His final battle against Achilles represents one of the most dramatic moments of the opera.


  1. Agamemnon : The king of the Achaeans and the supreme commander of the Greek forces. His conflict with Achilles triggers a series of events that jeopardize the entire war effort.


  1. Priam: The king of Troy, father of Hector and Paris. Despite his advanced age, he demonstrates courage and nobility of soul when he begs Achilles to return Hector’s body to him.


  1. Eris : The goddess of discord, whose act of throwing the “apple of discord” during the wedding of Peleus and Thetis triggers the Trojan War.


  1. She was: The queen of the gods, protector of the Achaeans and bitter enemy of the Trojans. Together with Athena, she actively supports the Greek cause.


  1. Aphrodite: The goddess of love and beauty, ally of the Trojans and protector of Paris.


  1. Hector: The valiant Trojan hero, son of Priam and Achilles’ main opponent on the battlefield.


The Iliad is an epic work that transcends time and space, offering a profound reflection on human nature, heroism, war and tragedy. Through the exploits of his characters, Homer takes us on an extraordinary journey, where anger and revenge are intertwined with compassion and courage, creating an unparalleled literary experience.